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English Article >> SEERAH - THE LIFE HISTORY OF THE HOLY PROPHET MUHAMMAD (S.A.W) Part 4

28. HIJRAH TO MADINATUL MUNAWWARAH

28.1 IMPORTANCE OF THE HIJRAH

The "Hijrah" is the migration Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) from Makkatul Mukarramah to Madinatul Munawwarah. "Hijrah" means leaving a country where one is persecuted and going to a land where there is freedom. It becomes necessary to make Hijrah to escape oppression and persecution to a place where a Muslim can live in peace and security. Hijrah is also made in order to set up a Muslim authority within a Muslim land where only Allah is worshipped. Hijrah is also called for to spread the message and teaching of Islam in lands it has not reached.

The Islamic Calendar, starts from the year of the Hijrah of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

28.2 INCIDENT AT THE CAVE

Mount Thaur is a mountain that is about 5 miles towards the south of Makkatul Mukarramah.

After leaving Makkatul Mukarramah, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) made their way safely to Mount Thaur. There found a small cave and hid in it. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) tore off rags from his clothing and covered all the holes of the cave. This prevented the cold air from entering the cave. Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) rested on his lap.

While Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam's) eyes were close, a snake bit Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) on his right toe. He was in pain, but, he did not wake up Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). The pain was so severe that he began to tear. His tear fell on the blessed cheek of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) opened his eyes. He immediately noticed how pale Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) looked. The poison was already taking effect.

On enquiry, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) told him what had happened. Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) then applied his blessed saliva to Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu's) right toe where the wound was. His wound was healed immediately.

28.3 KUFFAR REACH CAVE

In the meantime, the Kuffar of Makkatul Mukarramah were searching all over for Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). They reached Mount Thaur. At one point, they had almost reached the mouth of the cave. As Almighty Allah willed, a dove had laid her eggs at the entrance of the cave. A spider had woven its web across it. When the Kuffar saw the bird's eggs and the spider's web they thought, "No one has gone in here recently." They went away without looking inside the cave at all.

Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) was very fearful for the safety of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). But, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) assured him by saying, "Have no fear, Allah is with us."

While they hid in the cave, the daughter of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu), Sayyadah Asmah (radi Allahu anha), supplied them with their evening meals very secretly. His son, Sayyiduna Abdur Rahman (radi Allahu anhu), kept them well-informed of all the activities of the Kuffar. Both of them made sure that they were not followed by the Kuffar.

28.4 KUFFAR OFFER 100 CAMELS AS PRIZE MONEY

Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) stayed in the cave for 3 days. On the fourth day they headed for Madinatul Munawwarah.

Meanwhile, the Meccan Kuffar were already searching all the roads leading to Madinatul Munawwarah. They offered a prize of 100 camels to anyone who captured Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

While travelling, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) were tired from the journey. They decided to rest under a tree. As they were about to rest under the shade of the tree, they saw a horseman galloping towards them. Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) prayed to Almighty Allah to protect them from the horseman's evil intentions.

As the horseman drew near, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) ordered the earth to catch and pin the horse down. The horse kept stumbling a few times. The horseman was terrified. He finally came to Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and said: "I am Suraqa bin Jausham and I have no evil intention at all. I swear by Allah that no harm shall come to you."

Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) forgave Jausham. Jausham promised that on his return to Makkatul Mukarramah, he would turn back all pursuers.

After this incident, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) continued their long journey towards Madinatul Munawwarah.

29. MUSJIDUL QUBA : THE FIRST MOSQUE IN ISLAM

It was a very exhausting journey to Madinatul Munawwarah. Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) travelled mostly at night.

On the 7th day, they reached a place called Quba which was 3 miles away from Madinatul Munawwarah. A few people from that city were waiting there to welcome them. Soon, Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) joined them.

Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) stayed in Quba for 2 weeks. Many Muslims from Madinatul Munawwarah began to assemble there to meet him. A small Musjid was built in Quba. The land for the Masjid was donated by Sayyiduna Kulthum (radi Allahu anhu). The Masjid was called Musjidul Quba. This was the first mosque built by Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

It was a Friday when the Muslims set off towards Madinatul Munawwarah. Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) performed the first Jummah Khutba at the Bani Salim. He gave the Jummah sermon and performed the Salaah. After Salaah, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) continued the journey towards Madinatul Munawwarah.

30. YATHRIB BECOMES MADINATUN NABAWI

30.1 MADINITES WELCOME RASOOLULLAH (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM)

Soon, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and his party entered the city of Madinatul Munawwarah (then known as Yathrib). It was a golden day for the people of Madinatul Munawwarah. All the Muslims, men women and children were happy. They gave Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and his party a very warm welcome. The young women and children stood on their rooftops, and sang:

"From the hilltops of the South
The full moon did rise;
With what a lovely call,
unto Allah did he call
And we thank him for it all.
O you! Sent one of Rahmaan!
We bow to your command."

Little children ran up to Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). He stopped to hug them. "Do you love me, children?" He asked them.

"Yes, we love you, O Rasoolullah (salLal laahu alaihi wasallam)," they answered.

He smiled and said, "I love you, too!"

30.2 PIECE OF LAND BOUGHT FOR MUSJID

The chiefs of Madinatul Munawwarah surrounded Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and begged him to stay at their houses. But, he excused himself and said, "I will stay where my camel stops."

He then left the reins of the camel loose. The camel walked for a while, stopped and kneeled down on a piece of land. The land belonged to 2 orphans, Sayyiduna Suhal (radi Allahu anhu) and Sayyiduna Suhail (radi Allahu anhu). This piece of land was then bought from the orphans by Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). He instructed that a Masjid be built on that land and that his own house be built at the side of the Masjid.

Meanwhile, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) stayed at the house of Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub Ansaari (radi Allahu anhu) while his own home was being built. Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub Ansaari (radi Allahu anhu) was overjoyed. He had a double-storey house and offered the upper floor to Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), who chose the ground floor for the convenience of visitors. He stayed 7 months in the house of Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub Ansaari (radi Allahu anhu).

30.3 MADINATUN NABAWI

The moment that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) set foot into Yathrib, the city was no more called by it's old name. It was now called "Madinatun Nabawi" or "The City of the Prophet." We can also call the city "Madinatul Munawwarah" or "Medina Shareef."
30.4 ISLAMIC YEAR

The Islamic Year was 1 A.H. The letters "A.H." means "After Hijrah."

31. THE BROTHERHOOD OF THE ANSAAR AND MUHAJIRUN (1 A.H.)

31.1 ANSAAR

The Muslims of Madinatul Munawwarah came to be called "Ansaar" or "Helpers." They were very pleased with this title.

31.2 MUHAJIRUN

The Muslims who migrated from Makkatul Mukarramah to Madinatul Munawwarah were called the "Muhajirun" or "Immigrants."

31.3 BROTHERHOOD FORMED

Most of the Muhajirun had left everything they owned in Makkatul Mukarramah. They did not own property. They did not have any place to live. Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) called together all the Muhajirun and the Ansaar.

"All Muslims are brothers of each other," he said. "Our Muhajir brothers have left their homes in Makkatul Mukarramah. They have given up everything they owned for the Sake of Almighty Allah. I want each Ansaari to accept one Muhajir as his real brother."

The Ansaar were ready to do anything to please Almighty Allah and His Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Each of them adopted a Muhajir as his brother. "You are my brother in Islam," the Ansaar said to the Muhajir brothers. "You have an equal share in everything that Almighty Allah has given me. Almighty Allah will bless me and my property if you will share it with me."

The Muhajirun were very happy. They accepted only as much as they needed. Soon, some of them started learning farming from the Ansaar and became farmers. Others started their own businesses. The Ansaar and the Muhajirun lived like one big happy family. This brotherhood of the Ansaar and the Muhajirun is called "Mawakhat." The Holy Quran speaks of this brotherhood: "Those who believed, and adopted exile, and fought for the faith, with their property and their persons, in the cause of Allah, as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid - these are (all) friends and protectors, one of another..." (Surah Anfal: Verse 72)

32. BUILDING OF MUSJIDUN NABAWI (1 A.H.)

There were now many Muslims in Madinatul Munawwarah. Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) decided to build a Masjid in Madinatul Munawwarah.

32.1 BUILDING OF THE MUSJID

The building work began on the property that was bought by Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). All the Sahaba worked very hard in the construction of the Masjid. Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) himself worked day and night with the Sahaba, although they objected to him working. Soon the Masjid was completed.

It was a simple structure made of unbaked bricks. The roof was made of palm leaves and the trunks of the palm trees were used as pillars to support the roof. This Masjid was called "Musjidun Nabawi" or "The Musjid of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)."

32.2 ASHAABUS SAFFA

A platform was built on one side of the Musjid. A "suffa" or "thatched roof" covered the platform. Poor Muslims who had no families and no homes used to stay there. They were called "Ashaabus Suffa" or "Ahlus Suffa" (People of the Mats). These Muslims spent long hours in prayers and learning. Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had special love for them. They used to serve him with utmost dedication. Since they were very poor, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) asked the rich Ansaar to feed and clothe them.

32.3 ROOMS BUILT FOR RASOOLULLAH (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM)

Living quarters or rooms for Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and his family were built on one side of the Musjid. At about this time, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) married Sayyadah Aisha Siddiqa (radi Allahu anha), the daughter of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu).

33. PEACE TREATY WITH THE JEWS

Many Jews also lived in and around the city of Madinatul Munawwarah. They belonged to the tribes of the Banu Nadir, the Banu Quraiza and the Banu Quainuqa. The religion of the Jews is called "Judaism." The Holy Quran calls the Jews, the "Ahle Kitaab" or "People of the Book." This means that many Ambiya were sent to them and Almighty Allah gave some of these Ambiya His Books.

Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) went to the Jews and told them: "We live in one city; we are all one community. We should help each other and should fight our enemies together. You are People of the Book. You can have your own religion. We should have an agreement of peace and co-operation."

The Jews were happy at this idea. They signed the peace treaty with the Muslims. The Jews felt more close to Islam and the Muslims than to the other pagan tribes that worshipped idols.

But, the Jews, like the Quraish, believed that they were special people. They could not accept the idea that the Arabs could have a Prophet. They did not want the Arabs to become united through Islam. They began secretly opposing Islam through every possible way. The Sahaba were given strict instructions by Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) not to fight with the Jews but to have patience.

The Jews were further shocked and agitated when some of their Rabbis (Jewish Priests), like Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Salaam (radi Allahu anhu), whom they held in high esteem, accepted Islam.

34. ISLAMIC STATE OF MADINATUL MUNAWWARAH

Now, the Muslims in Madinatul Munawwarah had a government of their own. Madinatul Munawwarah was now an Islamic State. Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was the Prophet of Allah, their leader, their guide and their teacher. They met 5 times a day in the Masjid to offer their Salaah. If there was a dispute among them, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) settled it. Each day, the Sahaba learned about Islam from him. In all religious matters, the Muslims obeyed Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). They faith grew stronger and stronger.

34.1 INTRODUCTION OF THE AZAAN

There was no Azaan to call the Muslims to prayer. The Sahaba used to assemble in the Masjid when the time for Salaah came. At the suggestion of Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu), Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) accepted the Azaan as a method of calling the Muslims for prayer. Sayyiduna Bilal (radi Allahu anhu) was chosen to be the first Mu'azzin of Islam.

34.2 CHANGE OF QIBLAH TOWARDS MAKKATUL MUKARRAMAH

About this time, 17 months after the Hijrah, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was commanded by Almighty Allah to change the direction of the Qiblah towards the Holy Kaaba in Makkatul Mukarramah.

Thus far, the Muslims had been facing towards Masjidul Aqsa in Jerusalem while performing their Salaah. When the command was given to change the Qiblah towards Makkatul Mukarramah, the Jews began to object to the sudden change. Those Jews who accepted Islam did want to face towards the Holy Kaaba. They were very angry. They began opposing Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). This incident showed the Sahaba that the Jews were not sincere in accepting Islam. They were not true Muslims. We call them "Munafiqs."

34.3 MORE QURANIC INSTRUCTIONS

Now that the Muslim community was more united and living in peace, more and more Quranic instructions about practical life were laid down by Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

Zakaah became compulsory. Fasting in the Month of Ramadaan was introduced. The drinking of wine and dealing in interest (Usury) became Haraam. Laws regarding orphans, inheritance, marriage and the rights of women were revealed.

34.4 CHRISTIAN DELEGATION

A Christian delegation of 60 people came to Madinatul Munawwarah. Some of the men of this delegation were very learned. They came from noble families. They said that they came with the intention to learn about Islam. But, their real intention was not to learn about Islam. They came to spread hatred between the Jews and Muslims. Religious discussions took place between the Jews, Christians and the Muslims. When the discussions were over, the Jews and Christians refused to believe in Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) as the Last Messenger of Almighty Allah.

35. EXPEDITIONS

While Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was laying down the Islamic Laws that were to govern the lives of the Muslims, he was concerned with another problem. He knew that the enemies of Islam, the Meccan Kuffar, were not resting. He was sure that they might attack the Muslims in Madinatul Munawwarah.

He send out the Sahaba to see what the Meccan Kuffar were plotting against the Islamic State of Madinatul Munawwarah. These journeys by the Sahaba for a special purpose were called "Sariyas" or "Expeditions." Sariyas are secret missions or reconnaissance for the purpose of watching the movements of the enemy or to spy.

35.1 SARIYAS UNDERTAKEN BY THE SAHABA

Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) sent Sayyiduna Hamza (radi Allahu anhu) with 30 Sahaba towards the Red Sea. They spotted Abu Jahl with 300 men. No fighting took place and the Muslims returned safely.

Sayyiduna Ubaydah bin Harith (radi Allahu anhu) was sent to Rabigh in the Hijaz with 60 riders. They met Abu Sufyaan with 200 of his men. No fighting took place.

To confuse the Meccans even more, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) sent Sayyiduna Saad bin Abi Waqqas (radi Allahu anhu) with about 20 Sahaba towards the South. They returned safely.

35.2 SARIYAS UNDERTAKEN BY SAYYIDUNA RASOOLULLAH (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM)

Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) also took part in these expeditions. He went to a place called Waddam and succeeded in making a peace treaty with the Banu Qamrah tribe.

A month later, he took 200 Sahaba to a place called Bunat. Two or 3 months later, he went to Yauba to wait for the Quraish caravan headed by Abu Sufyaan, but the caravan had already passed by.

Twenty days after this expedition, Kurz bin Jabir, a Meccan Kuffar, raided the cattle and sheep of Madinatul Munawwarah. He escaped through Badr, and could not be caught.

35.3 KILLING OF AMR BIN HADRAMANI

Another expedition of 12 Sahaba under the leadership of Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Jahsh (radi Allahu anhu) was sent to Nakhlah, a town between Makkatul Mukarramah and Ta'if.

Sayyiduna Abdullah (radi Allahu anhu) passed by a Meccan caravan which was returning from Syria. He attacked the caravan. A Meccan, Amr bin Hadrami, was killed. Two persons were captured and the goods of the Kuffar were taken.

When the expedition returned to Madinatul Munawwarah, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) disapproved of the attack reminding the Sahaba that he had not given them instructions to fight. He also refused to accept the booty (captured wealth) from Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Jahsh (radi Allahu anhu).

This was one of the incidents that led to the Battle of Badr. The Meccans were angry at this killing and were bent on taking revenge.

35.4 ABU SUFYAAN'S CARAVAN

The second reason for the Battle of Badr to have taken place is through the following incident. Abu Sufyaan was returning from Syria with a caravan of goods. He heard that the Muslims were going to attack his caravan. He sent a fast rider to get help from Makkatul Mukarramah. Much later, when he realized that the attack was just a rumour, he sent another fast rider saying that help was not needed. Meanwhile, the message of the first rider already reached Makkatul Mukarramah. Abu Jahl and other Meccan leaders prepared a large army and headed towards Badr.

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